Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
Volume 61, number 2, Like this,
, Pages 543-583
Open Over Panel Open, Like this,
The existing amphibians are one of the most diverse radiation of terrestrial vertebrates (> 6800 species). Open effect in its preservation, diversification and systematic, no previous phylogeny for the group contained more than 522 species. Numerous studies with a taxon with limited taxon, however, they create large amounts of partially superimposed sequence data for many species. Here we combine these data and generate a new estimate of existing amphibious phylogeny, the 2871 species (± 40% of the existing existing species) of 432 genera (~85% of the existing genera ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ 500 currently recognized). Equipment speciesMany groups recognized in studies in studies, but also proposal, but also proposal not monophilia for several families that are currently recognized,Especially in Hyloid frogs (example, Ceratophryidae, cycloamphidae, leptodaktylidae, Strabomantae). To solve these and other problems are strongly supported and important to avoid the non -monophilia of today's families. Finally, this study provides more indications that the approach ofSuperman provides an effective strategy to replace a large phylogenic scale using combined results of previous studies, although many taxa have missing data.
► Molecular Em Long SkalaPhylogeneticEstimation for amphibians. ► Based on 2871 species: 41Cecilians, 436 Salamandras and 2394 RanaNine nuclear and threeMitochondrial gen.
With more than 6800 known species (Ampibiaweb;http://www.amphibiaweb.org/, accessed in April 2011; "AW") existing amphibians (frogs, salamanders and Cecilians) are one of the most diverse radiation of terrestrial vertebrates. The number of existing existing amphibians has increased rapidly in recent years with more than 2700species (~ 40 %) in the last 26 years (Duellman, 1999, Lannoo, 2005). This recently discovered diversity includes dozens of new types of well -known genres in tropical regions poorly examined as Madagascar (Viees et al., 2009),but also new genres in regions investigated relatively well as the south -this United United States.States (Camp et al., 2009) even new families such as Nasikabatrachidae (Biju and Bosuyt, 2003). Climate change and infectious diseases and many species have been annihilated in recent decades (Blaustein and Wake, 1990, Stuart et al., 2004).
A phylogenetic structure is crucial for the discovery, understanding and preservation of the existing diversity of amphibians, but it is currently a great phylogenic for existing amphibians. However, the latest molecular data and combined data have made important contributions to phylogenesis toA higher level (Frost et al., 2006, Roelants et al., 2007, Vienna, 2007a, Vienna, 2011) and for the phylogenic of many main groups such as Caecilians (San Mauro et al., 2009, Zhang and Wake, 2009b), Hyloid frogs (Darst and Cannatella, 2004), Ranoid frogs (for example, Bossuyt et al., 2006, Vienna et al., 2009), Microilidfrogs (van der Meijden et al., 2007), Buffonid -frogs (Palyet al., 2004, Pramuk et al. ,, 2008, Van Bocxlaer et al., 2009), Frogs (Guayasami et al., 2009), Dendrobatsfrogs (Grant et al., 2006, Santos et al., 2009),HEMIPHRACTIDA RANES (Vienna et al., 2007a), Hemiphractida frogs (Vienna et al., 2007a) .HyLID -Frogs (Faivich et al., 2005, Faivich et al., 2010, Vienna et al., 2005b, Vienna et al., 2010), Terranan -frogs (Hedges et al., 2008, Heinicke et al., 2009, 2009, 2009, 2009, 2009) and Salamander (Kozak etAl., 2009, Viees et al., 2011, Vienna et al., 2005a, Vienna et al., 2007b, Zhang and Wake, 2009a).
The highest anterior phylogeny is that of Frost et al. (2006). These authors have rebuilt amphibious phylogeny, which were rebuilt in a relatively intensive species sample (522) and characters (sequence data of up to4.9 KB 2 mitochondrial and 5 nucleus and 5 nuclei) [average = 3, 5 kb] and 5 kb] and 152 morphological characters) .This authors also proposed extensive changes to taxonomy, especially for specific taxafamily and gender. However, this study was also criticized for several reasons, including concerns about taxa samples and methodological strategies (Marjanović and Laurin, 2007, Pauly et al., 2009, Vienna, 2007b, Vienna, 2008). For example, these authors have collected up to 4900 characters per species, but their analysis is apparently based on 15,320 characters, which dominates their controversial approach to the sequence equipment (Poy) (Vienna, 2008). Although someos of the changes of Frost et al. (2006) adopted, others are more controversial, such as the division ofBufomiRana(Marjanović and Laurin, 2007, Pauly et al., 2009; AW). From the crime, many of these changes are no longer supported, even in the taxonomic database of existing amphibians (for example, families of amphignathodontidae, Batrachophryae, Cryptobatrachidae, Cryptobatrachidae and Thoropidae for Frost et al. (2006)). Much of the most unstable taxonomy includes the allocation of the family level of many Hyloid frogs, especially those who are traditionally referred to the leptodactylidae family.
The phylogenesis and classification of existing amphibians clearly need additional studies. The previous (and many others) have a large amount of data potentially suitable for a combined and supermatrix approach (for example, Queiroz and Gatesy, 2007, generated, Driskellet al., 2004, Pyron et al., 2011, Thomson and Shaffer and Shaffer, 2010, Vienna et al., 2005b). This includes thousands of gene banks for numerous nuclear and mitochondrial genes.
Here we present an estimate in a large scale of amphibious phylogeny, including 2871 species (42% of the 6807 types of known amphibians) of 432 of the 504, currently recognized (86%) genres and representatives of all families currently delimited and existing and existing and existingexisting.Sub -Family.São 5.5 more types and almost double simply eating published data simply for relatively well studied families (for example, dendrobatide, hyliden), we assume the monophilia and relationships of many smaller groups that are subject to not focused studies(For example, keratopryidae, Ceratopryidae, Cilcoramphidae), with the relationships between the relationship between the relationships between the relationships between the relations between the relationship between the relationship between the relations between the relations between the relations between the relations between the relations between the relations between the relationships between the relations between the relations between the relations between the relations between the relationships between the relationshipsAmong the smallest groups, Cilcoramphidae) were treated..
This analysis was several years. In the first taxonomy, it is based on the update of the Anphibiaweb (AW) database in September 2009. However, if we refer to the current figures, it will take it from the update in the update inApril 2011.The is quite updated, with respect to the recently described species, but more conservative than the world's amphibious species (Frost, 2011; follows "ASW") about some of the most controversial taxonomic changes (for example, byexample, for example, for example,BufomiRanakeep
Figure 1 shows a summary of the ml tree based on Raxmlv126.96.36.199 (LNL = –1704992.20). This phylogeny is generally supported well, with 64% of the nodes with proportions of Bs> 70. Our analysis supports theRanas, Cecilian and Salamander monophilia and weakly support a group relationship between the sisters between frogs and salamanders, since they are in most existing ones.The existing phylogenic studies of Lis Sambian (Frost et al., 2006, Pyron, 2011, 2011, 2011, 2011, 2011, 2011, 2011, Roelants et al., 2007, 2007, 2007,
Here we provide a large estimated size of amphibious phylogeny, which contains more than 2800 species (42% of the known existing variety). This philogeny is generalized with that of several new molecular analyzes (Frost et al., 2006, Roelants et al.,2007, Vienna, 2007a, Vienna, 2011). However, our greatest sample of taxa and characters (especially among the old leptodactilid shoers) shows that several families currently recognized are not monophylatic, as currently reduced (that is,
Thanks to the many researchers who allowed this study through their phylogenic studies detailed with a series (mainly) of common molecular markers and the sending of their sequence data to Genbank. We would like to be in F.T.Burbrink (Cuny-CSI),J. J. Lombardo (Cuny-CSI) and T.J.Gher (Cuny-CSI) for mathematical support and D.R.Frost (AMNH) and A.M.BAUER (Villanova) for the Taxi-Taxonomy Council. This research was in part of the subsidies of the FoundationNational of the US Sciences for R.A.P.
- Pag.Zhanget al.
A mythogenomic perspective on the phylogeny and biogeography of living Caecilians (amphibian: gymnophiona)
- Pag.Zhanget al.
Superior salamander relationships and complete mitochondrial divergence data
- EACH WORD.Fastet al.
An extended tridime phylogenesis (Hylidae) is based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence dataSee AlsoReassessment of species delineation using nuclear markers in three lentil-raising salamanders from Japan's Chugoku district (Amphibia: Caudata: Hynobiidae)Cloning and characterization of Xenopus β2 microglobulin
- DR.Veret al.
A multiple perspective on phylogenetic relationships in the largest family in Salamandra, Plethodontidae
- A.Van der Meijdenet al.
Phylogenesis of the nucleus of the nucleus (family: microhylidae) and a discussion about competition hypothesis on its biogeographic origin
- D.San Mauro
A multilieus time scale for the origin of existing amphibians
- Real Academy of Bellas Artes.Pirónet al.
The phylogenesis of progressive snakes (Colubroid), which discovered a new subfamily and compared support methods for probability trees
- R.Penget al.
Protohynobius puxiongensis rediscovery (flow: hynobiidae) and its phylogenetic position based on complete mitochondrial genomes
- A.E.woodcutteret al.
Molecular evidence of the initial history of living amphibians
- A.von Queirozet al.
Superman's approach to systematic
New relationships between mitochondrial DNA sequences of 12s and 16s
Line in amphibian populations: a global phenomenon
In addition to high sales, nine extraordinary radiation explain the variety of species in pine trees
The new Farm Family of India reveals an old biogeographic link with the Seychelles
Phylogenesis and biogeography of the radiation of the cosmopolitan frog: the late distrained newspaper led to a scale of continents in the Ranidae family
A new genre and a kind of lungless salamandra (Plethodontidae family) of the United States highlands, southeast Tapalachn
The emergence of amphibians: 365 million years of evolution
Phylogenetic evidence of a great reversal of the development of the history of life in Salamanders
Perspectives to build the tree of life from large sequence databases
Anfibian distribution patterns: a global perspective
Musco: Alignment of multiple sequences with high precision and high transmission rate
Systematic review of the Frosch -Hylidae family with special Hylinae consideration: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic review
The phylogenetic relationships of charismatic frogs, phylomedusinae (anura, hylidae)
Financing of Phylogeny
The tree of amphibious life
Filogenetic system of dart frogs and their relatives (amphibian: Athephatanura: dendrobatidae)
Phylogenetic system of glass frogs (Ampibian: Centralidae) and his brother -in -lauAllophryne ruthveni
On the systematic disposition of the Batuterachians of the speed and the structure ofRhinophrynus dorsal
New Ranas of Direct Development of the World (ANURA: Terraran): Molecular Phylogeny, Classification, Biogeography and Preservation
A new frösch -familie (anura: Terraran) from South America and an extended clothing of direct development that is presented by molecular phylogeny
Selection of calibration, tariff deviation and the diversification pattern of tetropods according to the long nucleus with RAG-1 long
Can parallel diversification occur in sympathy? Repeated patterns of evolution of height in the clothing of American Salamandra Coexist
Cited by (1157)
High variety of 5S ribosomal DNA and references to recombination with PCP190 -DNA in frogs
Differentiated types of 5S repetitions were found, which differ, depending on the size and composition of their not transmitted spacer (NTS), in several taxa. So much the development arranged as evolution of birth as death has proven to be an important role in evolutionOf the 5S, the RDNA family. However, the anurans have been plowed, since only a few au species of Aran had characterized and analyzed their 5S -rdna so far.They use classical techniques of molecular biology and bioinformatic approaches. The same types of sequences, according to the concerted evolutionary model. We have also determined the detection of recombination between 5S -RDNA and Satellite DNA PCP190, a repeated sequence that derives from RDNA 5S.The interaction between 5S -RDNA and PCP190 -Satellite -DNA can prefer that the latter stay in the genome and react to its presence in different tipfrogs.The Frogs.The Frogs.The Frogs.Frongas.The Frogs.The frogs react. The Analysis of the transcripts of Arnr 5S confirmed the leiuperine type I DNA as a functional gene 5S rrna.Finally, the chromosomal mapping of the 5S ADN sequences allowed some inferences of chromosomal homology in leuperinae.In conclusion, our studyIt provides additional information about the organization, differentiation and functionality of ADNA 5s in types of annurans that reveal the potential participation of satellites -DNA in the development of this DNA family.
The ultrastructure of the frogs of neotropical grass of comparative sperm (genus Leptodactylus) with comments to reproductive modes and phylogenianurans
The ultrasruption of the sperm cells provides important information on the fertilization mechanism and phylogenetic relationships. However, it was rarely included in the phylogenetic analysis of the anurans. This work aims to characterize the ultrasruption of the sperm of the tires in the genderThe leptodakyli,Cover the variations observed with different reproductive strategies and define signs to optimize in a previously published cladogram of this genus. We emphasize 24 species that are distributed in four groups:L. Brown, L. Barker, L. melanonotusmiL. PentadactylusWhen the morphological characters were coded and optimized using the parsimony method. The analyzed sperm has three surprising regions: head, central zone and tail. With respect to the head, a short and thin dirt is observed in the types of groups.L. BrownmiL. Pentadactylus, but it is long and thick in most types of groups examinedL. CallingmiL. melanonotusIn addition, basic gaps are observed in most species. With respect to the middle zone, a cytoplasmic region was observed without organelles in group speciesL. Brown, L. BarkingmiL. melanonotus, but there were no species of the speciesL. PentadactylusGroup. The species examined showed a mitochondrial necklace and a cytoplasmic channel. After everything, all species have an axonam, a wavy membrane and an axial fiber in the tail, but only some have a judicial fiber. The results show the thick acrosomalof the thick -asomal gallbladder as a disguised synapomorfieL. Barking + L.MelanonotusThe presence of central spaces and the lack of a subaccrosomal cone optimize as a suspicion of leptodylidae synapomorphy. In summary, we observe a relationship between reproductive strategies and sperm morphology, which also supports phylogenetic relationships in this genre.
Resolution of deep phylogeny: Effects on early adaptive radiation, perplexity and current ecological diversity of papuan-mikro-hylid frogs
2022, molecular phylogenetics and evolution
The New Guinea microhiluros are the largest and most ecologically diverse (asterophiline) subfamily one of the world's largest anniversary families and can live in communities of up to 20 species. Although there was a recent progress in the resolution of the phylogenetics of Asterophryinae,Significant uncertainties remain a greater preventive progress in understanding the development of microhightboards, parental care and the variation in the history of life in this group. Some genres; and recent studies have found that species with a wide distributionGeographical are complex disconcert species. In this study, we enrich the sampling of the geographical system of the previous previous phylogenetic efforts, sequenced 62 additional taxa and increase in quality and data, add new layers of data verification and are filled previously incomplete for the recordof data from five rigors (2 mitochondria, 3Gen, 3GEs codification of nuclear proteins) for a data record, which is now completed in more than 2400 characters for 233 samples (205 taxa) of Assertoophryinae and 3 external groups) and the data analyzed the use of these field data rates and gathered dataTheliteratura.es is important to emphasize that our sampling of complete community supplements in 19 locations, as well as representatives in more than 80 locations in New Guinea and its islands on the high sea. We have a highly resolved molecular philogeny, which for the first time has more of the95% of the supported nodes (84% highly compatible), if they use maximum probability or Bayesian inference and allow the clarification of all genres (monofiletes or clearly), gender sisters, as well as an age estimate for asterophryinae, inAround 20 million years, and the early generic verification of Diine, which occurs between 17 and 12 mya, led to a surprising variety of around 18 genres andThe 5 supposed types of micro. Although the tree shows an extensive disconcerting diversity that describes a generalized doubt and clearly demonstrates these communities. Multiple multiple Asserophryinae complexes are friendly to the environment, they are numerous and old origin in New Guinea.Discuss the effects of our phylogeny to explain the explosive diversification of Asterophryinae due to adaptive radiation, niche conservatism and non -adaptive radiation.
Comparative skin histology of neotropic dental frogs
The amphibious skin is a complex organ with dermal glands, which, according to its morphology, is classified as coordination and alveolar (both generally called mucous glands) and syntondically (generally known as serous, granular or poisonous glands). This can be distributedIn the end, or grouped and forming reddish, which are known as warts or macroglälander and are histologically differentiated. In particular, the skin of the odontophrynidae family was used as diagnostic characteristics; however, you describe a tight work in detail.Histochemicals of the skin in the place in the position in the regions of Suppatimpan and post-organs in species of the three genres, which summarizes this familyOdontofrynusmiMacrogénicoWith respect to the presence of projections similar to the powerful spine, large sponge glands with pores similar to stoma and morphology and histochemical of secretion in the large symptomical glands. Identification at the species level, especially differentiated disconcert species.Odontofrynus,exceptOdontophrynus reigi,can be recognized as a macrogland, while it is inProceratofrysThey are observed as warts.MakerNografiaThe bumps show intermediate characteristics between the warts and the landscapes of Macrogl.
Temporary and spatial diversification during the Amazon transition closed in the neotropical tree of the Boana Albopunctata species group
2022, molecular phylogenetics and evolution
Despite the extensive studies on biological diversity in neotropical forests, biological diversity in open and open biomes in South America underestimated until recently. We have a generalized and generalized groupBoana Albopunctata, Discover enigmatic tribes and the examination of the moment of diversification in neotropic anurns, focuses on dry diagonal biomes (closed, falling and chaco) and the ecotone between Amazon and closed.B. albopunctataArt Group, which includes 15 of 18 species described, won two enigmatic species and the moment of diversification between species that are distributed in several South American biomesB.Aff.Steinbachi), scanned in the state of the Amazon of Acre, grouped into theB. Calcara-FasciataSpecies complex and is close toB. Steinbachi.A second presumed form (B. AFF.Multifasciata), scanned in the closed Amazon ecoon, closely connected to each otherB. multifasciataFor the end we have a recently identified closed line (B.Aff.Albuncuta) NOB. albopunctataA group of species phylogeny for the first time.B. AlbapadoThe group was probably extended from Amazon closed in the dry and Atlantic diagonal forest.B. RancepsmiB. albopunctata, Rapid diagonal expansion signs.B. multifasciataOur analysis supports an invasion of the closed Amazônia, followed by a rapid expansion in open diagonal biomes. Therefore, our study is recovering some recent differences throughout the Ecotono-Cerrado of the Amazon in northern Brazil. The tectonic increase andErosion in the late oscillation-metida and climatic in the Pleistocene corresponded to estimated differences in the dry diagonal and in the eccoton nucleus Amazon. Therefore, the study underlines the importance of these open formations that are threatened in the production of biodiversityIn Neotrop.
Human activities prefer productive life stories in exchanged and introduced vertebrates
2023, natural communication
Recommended articles (6)
Phylogenetic relations of Chinese torrents
Phylogenetics and molecular evolution, volume 146, 2020, article 106753
The genus Torrent RanaAmolopsIt contains almost sixty species that are distributed in Swift mountain streams in southeastern Asia.AmolopsThe groups of species and species did not dissolve immediately with a small number of molecular markers. Here we apply the new AFLP capture approach and acquire two main records (242 anonymous central sequences and mitochondrial genom) 70 ChineseAmolopsSamples to investigate their relationships. The phylogenic data of inflated nucleus and the mitochondrial data were robust and showed a primary phylogenetic separation between the eastern and western ChineseAmolopsSpecies. The relationships of the six groups of species have been clarified while the three groups of species in eastern China (A. Ricketti, Like this,A. SOLHTACY said teachingmiA. hainanensisGroups) were monophytic, the three groups of species in the West (theA. mantzorum, Like this,A. MonticolamiA. MarmorchThe groups) were not monophylatic and indicated the need for additional examination and review. The robust phylogenic also provided new ideas about species relationships, especially for theA. mantzorumGroup that occurs due to several specialist events that occur approximately 7 to 8 million years agoAmolopsIt appeared at the end of the Eocene or in the first oligocene, and that the Chinese experience eventsAmolopsThey were often related to geological events (for example, mountain revolts and islands formation).AmolopsA phylogeny was built that reflected the origin of the ChineseAmolopsWith the basis of all these results, a scenario of the dispersion of torrentsBe useful for other non -models groups.
Morphological characterization of the glandular system in the Salamandra of Pletsodon Shermani (Caudata, Pllethodontidae)
Zoology, volume 118, edition 5, 2015, pp.334-347
The amphibious have developed a variety of mechanisms that offer a certain level of protection against predators, including camouflage, the autonomy of the tail, the discussion of behavior and secretions of the nal or toxic skin. In addition to these strategies, some amphibiansThey give an adhesive secretion freely on the surface surface if threats. Although certain information about the origin and production of this adhesive secretion for frogs is availableNotaden BennettiThese aspects are only partially understood in Salamandra. We continue for an earlier study and provide additional information on the origin, production and characterization of adhesive secretion in the red alloy salamandra (Plethodon Shermani) At a microanatomic level. When this salamandra is stressed, a milky and viscous fluid of its dorsal and ventral skin tells. This secretion is extremely sticky and harden in seconds after air exposure. This study describes two types of glands of glandsThe skin (mucous and gran membranes) in the dorsal and ventral epithelial tissue, which differs significantly in its secretor content. While the smallest mucous glands contain flocculent to granars, in particular acid glycoprotein, the granular glands synthesize several sizes and densitydifferent that consist of basic protein material. The secretions of both types of dorsal and ventral glands form the adhesive mucus inPlethodon Shermani, which consists of fundamental and acidic glycoproteins, glucoconal fighters with hands and α-UE-Sides of fish and lipid components.
A new examination of the Times of Phylogeny and the divergence of Hynobiidae (Anfibio, Caudata) based on 29 central genes
Phylogenetics and molecular evolution, volume 83, 2015, pp.1-6
Although several recent studies have examined the most important phylogenetic relationships within Hynobiidae, its evolutionary history remains partially dissolved and the phylogenetic positions of some genres, especially thePachyhynobiusmiSalamandrellaThey are still controversial. Non -referent studies are mainly based on mitochondrial DNA data and chained analysis. Therefore, new research results are required based on nuclear genes and inference of species trees. (24 Hynobiids and 7 external groups) using chained and species methods.SalamandrellaLike a brother group of a dressed abstentionBatrachuperus, Like this,ChangemiPseudohynobioand the placement ofPachyhynobiusAs the brother's brother group, which contains all Hynobiids with the exceptionOnychodactylus, Like this,ParadactylodonmiRonodon.TIME -Time -Based Time -Date sugiere que el grupo principal de hynobiids vivos (sinOnychodactylus) Around 40 mA, ~ 50% younger than DNMT data estimates (62.5 mA), but 10% more than three main estimates (36 mA). Other results underline the advantages of using a large nuclear loci to close thePhylogeny and time for relatively relatively relative old tribes.
Phylogenomic support for the evolutionary relationships of frogs of the development of the New World (anura: Terranae)
Phylogenetics and molecular evolution, volume 118, 2018, pp.145-155
Phylogenomic approaches have shown to solve difficult branches in the tree of life. The new direct development frogs (Terranae) are a great evolutionary radiation in which interrelationships at the most important phylogeny points have not been properly determined, whichThe evolution, influenced biogeographically and taxonomically, the interpretations. We experience a hybrid enrichment to create a data record with 389 loci and> 600,000 nucleotide positions for 30 Terranan and several species of external support frogs for almost all tree relationships.These results are similar to the previous phylogenetic results, but provide additional resolution in an internal short.CeutomantisIt is shown as a brother taxon of all other lands instead of being deeply integrated into radiationRooming.
A probability development of historical biogeography in the most diverse terrestrial genre: Diversification of frogs in direct development (Crustoridae: pristimantis) in neotropic
Phylogenetics and molecular evolution, volume 85, 2015, p.50-58
The geology of the Andean region of the North directed the evolutionary history of neotropic fauna through the creation of obstacles and connections that led to specialized knowledge and dispersion events. One of the most striking groups of hinge fauna in the Andes andThe surrounding areas is one of the most striking groups of hinge faunes the types of direct development of the genreLynch.We examine the molecular phylogenetic placement of 12 species of Colombia in a broader geographical context with a new phylogeny in the genusPristimantíaWe have released the biogeographic history of the genre using the reconstruction of the tribe by biogeographic regions and survey intervals and radiation.PristimantíaIn addition, we find several Andes migrations for new life spaces of Andes -Intrals -where for some species groups. We host these paleogological changes in the northwest of the main sponsors of the specialty of special.PristimantíaAnd may have served as a runner for the dispersion of the levels.
Enigmatic diversity for Amazonians: the integrative taxonomy of the genus anomaloglossus (Ampibia: anura: aromobatidae) shows a unique case of diversification within the sign of Guyana
Phylogenetics and molecular evolution, volume 112, 2017, pp.158-173
The lack of resolution within the borders and the distribution of species can hinder it in many areas of biology, especially biogeography and biology of nature conservation. This applies in particular to megadiverse and in later regions such as the Amazon,in which the richness of the species remains a lot and not stamped. The integrating approaches that use a combination of phenotypic and molecular evidence were extremely successful in the reduction of knowledge gaps within the limits of the species, especially in animal groups, that had a high degree of disconcerting diversity that the amphibians.16snuclearTyr, Like this,Pomco, ERag1) 522 copies ofAnomaloglossus, A genus of the endemic frog of the Guyana shield, including 16 of the 26 nominal species, with morphometry, bioakoustic, tadation and habitat used to assess the design of art in two types of groups. Seis correspond to the species described.AnomaloglossusSpecies in Guyana Shield levels.AnomaloglossusIt seems to be the only amphibious genre that diversifies in the eastern part of the Guyana sign.A. DegranvilleThe group, a subclastic area, shows acoustic and morphological conservatism, while the second subclied less molecular divergence, however, has a clear phenotypic divergence.A. StepheniThe species group is observed, a complex evolutionary diversification in the development of reborn, especially in two closely related tribes that have exotrophic and endotrophic reborn.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All reserved.